Ai Cheat Sheet

Cross Entropy


Entropy of a random variable X is the level of uncertainty inherent in the variables possible outcome.
H(X)=xp(x)logp(x)H(X) = -\sum_x p(x) \log p(x)
Cross-Entropy loss is an important cost function. It is used to optimize classification models. The understanding of Cross-Entropy is pegged on understanding of Softmax activation function.
Consider a 4-class classification task where an image is classified as either a dog, cat, horse, or cheetah.
In the above Figure, Softmax converts logits into probabilities. The purpose of the Cross-Entropy is to take the output probabilities (P) and measure the distance from the truth values (as shown in Figure below).
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For the example above the desired output is [1,0,0,0] for the class dog but the model outputs [0.775, 0.116, 0.039, 0.070] .

Cross-Entropy Loss Function

Also called logarithmic loss, log loss or logistic loss. Each predicted class probability is compared to the actual class desired output 0 or 1 and a score/loss is calculated that penalizes the probability based on how far it is form the actual expected value. The penalty is logarithmic in nature yielding a large score for large differences close to 1 and small score for small differences tending to 0. Cross-entropy is defined as,
Lce=i=1nyilog(pi)L_{ce} = - \sum_{i=1}^n y_i \log(p_i)

Categorial Cross-Entropy Loss

L=i=14Yilog(Si)=[1log2(0.775)+0log2(0.116)+0log2(0.039)+0log2(0.070)]=0.3677L=-\sum_{i=1}^4 Y_i \log (S_i) \\ = - [1\log_2(0.775) + 0\log_2(0.116) + 0\log_2(0.039) + 0\log_2(0.070)] \\ = 0.3677
Assume that after some iterations of model training the model outputs the following vector of logits
Image for post
L=1log2(0.938)+0+0+0=0.095L = - 1 \log_2(0.938)+0+0+0 = 0.095

Binary Cross-Entropy Loss

If there are just two class labels, the probability is modeled as the Bernoulli distribution for the positive class label. This means that the probability for class 1 is predicted by the model directly, and the probability for class 0 is given as one minus the predicted probability, for example,
L=i=12yilog(pi)=[yilog(yi^)+(1yi)log(1yi^)]L= - \sum_{i=1}^2 y_i \log(p_i) = -[y_i \log( \hat{y_i}) + (1-y_i) \log(1-\hat{y_i})]